Beer is brewed using malt as main raw material, with addition of hops and fermented with yeast, it is a carbonated carbonated low-alcohol drink. The alcohol content of beer usually does not exceed 4%.
Raw materials for production: malt, hops, yeast, water.
Beer brewing can be roughly divided into malt preparation (small and medium breweries can purchase directly) → malt crushing (feeding, moisturizing, crushing) → wort preparation (saccharification, filtering, boiling, adding hops, spinning) malt Juice fermentation (cooling and yeast inoculation), beer bottling and other basic processes
Crushing malt→saccharification→filtration→boiling (adding hops)→pressing→cooling→acidified and chilled wort (adding yeast)→fermentation
1. Malt crusher
Choose qualified malt to be crushed, degree of grinding should be a little finer, which is conducive to leaching and dissolving materials, releasing enzymes and improving effect of saccharification, but it should not be too fine; before crushing, it should be 5-10 minutes in advance, add an appropriate amount of water to wet surface of barley malt, to meet "broken but not broken" requirement for crushed powder, so that wheat grains form a filter layer. and facilitate wort filtration. During crushing process, samples are taken at any time to check grinding state of malt. According to thickness of malt powder, handwheel and feeding amount are properly adjusted, and there must be a certain ratio of coarse and fine grains. This relationship may cause differences due to differences in personnel, equipment and raw materials.
Caution: Barley malt should be powdered and used immediately, and should not be stored for long periods, let alone overnight.
When specialty malt is milled, do not moisten it
According to thickness of malt powder, correctly adjust distance between rollers and amount of feeding, ratio of large and small grains is 1:2.5,
Material to water ratio 1:4
Mashing: Start mashing in mash tun, open powder hopper valve, place crushed malt powder in mash tun, mix evenly and stop mashing when temperature reaches set point.
Protein Rest: When temperature reaches set temperature of 53°C, stop stirring and leave for 40 minutes to allow protein to decompose.
Saccharification: after protein digestion is complete, turn on mash kettle to stir, turn on steam heat and heat to desired temperature (usually 66°C) at a rate of 1-1.5°C/min for Saccharification The saccharification time is about 60-70 minutes.
Finally brought to 78°C, ready to be filtered. (The function of gelatinization kettle is to mix auxiliary materials such as rice flour and some malt powder with water and boil, and then use it to heat mash to liquefy and gelatinize starch)
2. Wort filtration
Drain mash → pour → filter → rinse beans → unload beans
Turn on hot water pump and sieve plate check valve to fill interlayer at bottom of filter tank with 78°C hot water, let water through 0.3-0.5cm sieve plate, open corresponding valve, and turn on mash filling to pump mash into filter tank, at same time open plowing knife to mix and send mash, close valve and close mash filling pump at same time, stop stirring, stand for 10-15 minutes, let natural filter layer form .
Wort backflow: Pay attention to static time, when time is right, return it in time, open valve, wort backflow manual valve and wort pump, boil wort in filter tank for 5-10 minutes and observe. purity of wort in sight glass. Finally, switch check valve to a filter valve and pump wort into boiling pot.
★Special attention 1: When using suction filtration method for filtration, adjust frequency converter, carefully control wort flow, and maintain stability of reverse flow.
★ Special Note 2: If during filtration process wort is opaque or difficult to filter, you can stir mash and let it rest for 10 minutes and then reflux it again until wort is clear.
Grain washing: when original must is filtered until bad surface is almost exposed, rinse grain, turn on cultivator, add water to wash grain, stop processing grain after adding water, and repeat previous filtering after a new filter layer is formed Procedures, rinsing is bad at all 2 times.
Measurement of mixed wort: after washing grain 2 times, measure concentration of mixed wort (according to total volatility of wort 10%, and boil time is 70 minutes, if final concentration of wort is controlled to be 12°VX, then concentration of mixed wort is adjusted at 10 .8-11.0°VX).
Introduction: after washing grain, measure concentration of mixed wort twice; when requirements are met, stop filtering, raise cultivator to cutoff position, turn on cultivator to stir, then lower cultivator and automatically drop scraper, pay attention to simultaneous addition of tap water, so that wheat grains and tap water are evenly mixed, and open valve to dump waste to start dumping waste.
This process can easily cause different irrigation and filtration speed and time due to different operators, which can easily cause different sugar content in original wort, and mistake of amount of water added in washing process can also easily cause different sugar content in mixed must.
3. Boiling wort
Wort boiling: After wort is filtered, open large steam valve and start boiling. When wort boils, start countdown. The boil time is 70 minutes and wort is always in a boiling state; if internal concentration does not meet requirements, it can be delayed accordingly.
Introduction of hops: The wort is boiled for 5 minutes, 30 minutes and 10 minutes until end of boil, bittering, bittering and aromatic hops are added, respectively, according to recipe.
★ Special note:
a.During boiling, carefully control source of steam to avoid overflowing hot wort and prevent scalding!
b. After weighing hops, immediately close original packaging and place it in refrigerator to prevent oxidation.
4. Whirling wort sedimentation
After boiling, close steam valve, bottom valve of brew kettle and tangential entrance door of spinner tank will automatically open, and at same time start wort pump, pump wort into spinner tank, let it brew for 30 minutes, and then cool wort.
Pipe sterilization: heat hot water in hot water tank above 80°C, stop heating, open valve, sterilize wort pipeline and thin plate cooler for 20 minutes, open oxygenation valve slightly during sterilization, and at same time sterilize, end sterilization , close all valves.
After wort boils, shake for 3-5 minutes, let stand for 30-40 minutes, then drain hot coagulation and refrigerate wort. The length of this process will also affect fermentation of must.
6. Wort cooling with oxygen
Check: supply of heat exchanger fittings, valves, instruments, ice water, tap water, oxygen (pure bottled oxygen, stop using if pressure is below 1.5 MPa and replace cylinder) is normal, and prepare for cooling if no deviations from norm.
Cooling: connect wort pipeline to fermenter through connection plate, first open pipeline valve and sewage drain manual valve, close all valves after sewage is discharged, and then open cold water valve, pipeline valve, wort pump. , tube plate in turn valve, oxygen valve, wort cooling. Control cooling temperature and control tank temperature according to process requirements.
Draining Residual Wash Liquid: In early stages of wort cooling, residual wash liquid in plate cooler must be completely removed with wort before wort can be fed into fermenter.
Oxygenation: While wort is cooling, wort is constantly oxygenated, and dosage is about 1-2 times amount of wort.
Recovery: After cooling wort, oxygen is used to pipe wort into fermenter. Flush piping and sheet cooler with hot water at 80°C for 10 minutes.
Control cooling temperature: Due to different types of homebrews and strains used, cooling temperature of wort is different; During cooling process in fermenter, amount of oxygenation is subject to variation due to pressure of oxygen bottle and control of operator. Before chilled wort enters fermenter, it is sterilely inoculated.
7. Fermentation process
Cleaning and sterilization of fermentation tank → inoculation → wort supply (oxygenation) → removal of impurities → sugar measurement → pre-fermentation → sealing → post-fermentation → yeast processing. bacteria, whether time and quantification of removal of impurities, whether measurement of sugar is accurate, whether fermentation before sealing tank is in line with standard, whether temperature and pressure control after fermentation is accurate, and whether taste is correct are all different due to different operators, in addition, duration of fermentation, amount of inoculation, ambient temperature and other factors will be affected.
Sugar measurement: take a blood sugar sample day after feeding (need to be measured every day to monitor fermentation status)
a. Fermentation liquid treatment: First, pour impurities into wine tube, take measuring cylinder for fermentation liquid, pour it 100 times with two cups several times (the distance between cups is at least 50cm) to remove CO2 in fermentation liquid, and pour it into graduated cylinder , calm down.
b. Measure sugar content: take a sugar content meter with a range of 0-10BX, slowly insert end with a mercury bag into wort, and other methods are same as original method for measuring concentration of wort.
9. Filter (optional)
10. Canning (PET bottles, banquet barrels, glass bottles, cans, etc.)The main equipment of beer production system is as follows:
1. Malting Equipment
2. Saccharification system: malt screw conveyor, malt moistening mixer, malt mill, malt powder screw conveyor, powder hopper, mash tank, filter tank, brew kettle, rotary washer, hot water tank, sheet changer, heater , filter pump, wort pump, hot water pump, etc.
3. Fermentation system: including fermentation tanks, sake tanks, etc.
4. Cleaning system: including alkali tank, acid tank, disinfection tank, etc.
5. Packaging system: PET bottles, banquet barrels, glass bottles, jars... everything can be filled
6. Power system: electric steam generator, refrigerator, ice water tank, saccharification system control cabinet, fermentation system control cabinet
7. Air supply system: including oil-free air compressor
There may be flaws, please understand!
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